WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND HOW DOES IT WORK

The current world order has developed numerous inter-connections among the available entities. The subject of Artificial Intelligence (Hereinafter referred to as AI) is an electronic entity that is invented to reduce human effort. As per various computer analysts around the world, AI is the development of computer system that is able to perform tasks that would require human intelligence. The invention of machines might have been considered as form of artificial intelligence during a particular era considering the reduction in human effort. While, there are several countries, organisations and analyst around the world who firmly believe that the introduction and simulation of AI in our daily lives might create a threat to human life in the planet. The current apprehension is mainly due to the risk that AI might become much more powerful than human being if dependence on AI increases beyond a point. In the year 1950, Alan Turning formulated the Turning test which was used to determine the level of intelligence of a computer. The prime result of the test could be a comparative analysis of human and computer intelligence. Since the period of Turning Test, the world community has travelled a long road; the first summit on Artificial Intelligence which was scheduled to be held in New Delhi in October, 2020 was postponed due to growing COVID-19 pandemic.

Types of Artificial Intelligence

There are primarily two types of AI which is categorised according to the functioning of different machineries. Firstly, Machines with weak AI, which are made to respond to specific situations, but cannot think for themselves. They are mainly programmed for specific activities and they cannot function beyond the activities for which they are programmed. They are comparatively less receptive towards the daily human needs. Secondly, Machines with strong A.I. is able to think and acts just like a human. It is able to learn from experiences. Since there are no real life examples of strong A.I. yet, the best representation would be how Hollywood portrays robots.

At the higher level, AI can be divided into two types which include narrow and general AI. In the arrow AI, includes the functioning of modern computers that are functioning to perform explicit actions, For example, Siri virtual assistance on Apple Iphone; as for general AI are programmed mechanically to undergo several functions that can be beyond the control of human beings. Theorist around the world have often stated that general form of AI has not been prepared yet or that the world has not yet come across a system that is so highly qualified in nature. But again, the ongoing debate is mainly related to the legalities of such an invention in the human life.

Working mechanism of Artificial Intelligence

The working mechanism of AI is disparate in nature. The simplest form is the use of machine learning to imitate the working procedure of a human with the use of algorithms and historical data to create a propensity model. As per the report of the European Parliament, the working mechanism of AI is divided into two waves, the first wave consist of expert system, capturing intuitive expertise, and old fashioned AI

  • Expert system: A human expert formulates rules for the computer to follow in every step. This AI is completely related to the decision making of the human expert such as calculation of taxes etc.
  • Capturing intuitive expertise : In this system, the variable is either true or false which can be primarily explained either in ‘truth value’ between 0 and 1. They can automatically adjust according to the situation in hand, like for instance cameras and even applications which function for the stock market
  • Good old fashioned AI: These have an encoding system which provides a degree of autonomy on the machine.

The second wave of AI mainly includes data drive machine learning that consists of artificial neural networks and deep learning, trading of neural networks and inspired by nature evolution trading methods.. The second wave of AI includes the use of ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) that are present in the functionality of electro-chemical neural networks present in human and animal life. The usage of ANN signifies the highlight developed working mechanism of AI towards the second wave.

Benefits and risks of Artificial Intelligence

The prime reason of introduction of AI was to eliminate the risk to human life and make the life of a human easier by reducing the risks but the recent developments have demarcated that AI may turn into a threat to the existence of humanity in the world. Benefits such as generation of capital, expertise in performance of technical activities, collection of data within a short period of time, use of AI during warfare reduces the casualties of warfare, Transparency. As for the numerous public opposition towards AI is mainly criticised due to the fact that our society is not ready to either take into account the developments both financially and economically. The imminent risk to existence of human life is also present.

Analysis

From the above discussion, it can be further analyses that AI has slowly become an imminent part of our daily lives. While, it would have been extremely difficult to imagine the current life that we are living in the present day world, we should at the same time consider the current situation where humans are heavily dependent of their daily activities on AI. We can thereby, summarise the above and state that, AI might be the prime working mechanism of the future.